Carnelian beads are a type of gemstone jewelry made from carnelian quartz. Carnelian originates from places such as India and China and is used to craft exquisite beads by hand, and in well defined dimensions. Big carnelian beads are comparatively opaque, while the smaller ones appear to be more translucent. These beads appear in colors such as deep orange, red, brown and yellow. The reason for this diversity in the color of carnelian beads is the fact that the bead making procedure involves heating and shaping agate severally. Thereafter, the beads have to be grilled in order to achieve the final desired shape.
Padre beads are glass beads whose origin is traced back to ancient China. In the late 18th century, these beads spread rapidly in use in Southwest and Northwest America, following the trading patterns of Russian and Spanish traders. Padre beads were available in 3 sizes: jumbo Dogons measuring 5/8’s to ¾ inches in diameter; mid-sized Crow beads measuring 3/8’s inches in diameter and the small Pony beads measuring 3/16’s inches in diameter. Padre beads were available in a variety of colors, with blue and white being most valuable historically and the only ones acceptable for trade amongst the Indians.
King beads are old Venetian wound and marvered bicone beads. There is a legend behind the naming of these beads which holds that these beads were worn by African Kings and tribal chiefs during the mass importation of African trade beads in the early 1970s. The earliest versions of King beads are dated to the mid 19th century, with their representations having been made on bead sample cards donated by Moses Lewin Levin to the British Museum in 1865. King beads still hold a place of importance in modern African society where they are prominently featured in Dipo Initiation ceremonies held in Ghana, with the yellow King beads being used to symbolize maturity and prosperity. King beads are today available in a wide range of attractive colors, sizes and designs – but always in the bicone shape.
The oldest African beads are made from ostrich egg shell and were discovered in the Enkapune Ya Muto rock shelter in the Rift Valley region of Kenya. These beads have been dated to 37,000-39,900 years old, and they comprise 13 complete beads, 12 preforms and 593 shell fragments. It is believed that each bead was made individually and not through the heishi technique of bead making. While these beads are believed to have symbolized solidarity in ancient Bushmen society, today you can simply enjoy their beauty by wearing them as a necklace. Making a necklace from ostrich egg shell beads will involve drilling the beads to enable stringing; and thereafter grinding them along a stone to smooth them on the edge.
Snake beads were popularly worn by members of traditional African society as a form of protection from evil charms and ill fate. The modern woman, although not in the least bit superstitious, may also adorn herself in attractive snake beads by simply slipping a strand over her head. Alternatively, one may get a little creative and use a strand to accent a unique piece to wear or to give away as a gift. An exquisite modern design of African snake beads features long 22 – 28 inch strands of handmade glass beads which are interlocked in a design resembling snake vertebra and strung on raffia.
Prayer beads are commonly used by members of major world religions such as Catholicism, Islam, Buddhism and Hinduism, in order to count the repetitions of prayers, devotions and chants. These may similarly be used for relaxation, during meditation, as well as when seeking protection from negative energy. For each religion, the number of beads tends to vary, as well as the number of prayer counts. Prayer beads are said to have certain psychological, physical and metaphysical effects on those who use them, aside from enabling them to effortlessly keep count of the number of said prayers. When able to keep track of prayers using prayer beads, devotees are likewise better able to focus more attention on the actual prayer itself.